Wednesday, September 17, 2008

Nobel Laureate: Otto Warburg

 


The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1931.
"for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme"


Otto Heinrich Warburg (1883 - 1970 ) received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his contributions to understanding cellular respiration. At the time he received the Nobel Prize, he was credited with discovering the "respiratory enzyme" and demonstrating that it required iron. The idea was that oxygen binds to iron during respiration in the same way that it binds to iron in hemoglobin. Here's how the discovery was described in the presentation speech on the Nobelprize.org website.

THEME:
Nobel Laureates
Definite proof that he was on the track of this well-hidden secret of Nature was obtained by the use of exact measurements of combustion in living cells or, as Warburg calls it, cell respiration. The quantitatively measured variations in the process of combustion under different conditions threw light on the nature of the respiratory ferment. Its tendency to enter into compounds with substances which combine with iron showed that it is itself an iron compound, and that its effects are due to iron.
We now know that this is incorrect. Warburg probably worked with cytochrome c which has a iron-containing heme group [Monday's Molecule #88] but cytochrome c does not bind oxygen. It is an intermediate in the oxidation-reduction pathway, contributing electrons to cytochrome c oxidase—the real oxygen binding enzyme. Cytochrome c oxidase does have an iron heme group that contributes to oxygen binding but copper atoms are also intimately involved.

This is a case where the Nobel Prize was awarded to the right person for the wrong reasons. Warburg made lots of contributions to biochemistry. He discovered flavin proteins and did seminal work on oxidation-reduction enzymes that use NAD+ as a cofactor. He also contributed significantly to our understanding of photosynthesis.

Many people believe that Warburg received a second Nobel Prize in 1944 for these other contributions but he was unable to accept it because Hitler declared that Germans, especially Jewish Germans, could not accept a foreign prize. The Nobel Committee has repeatedly declared that Warbug was not offered the prize in 1944 although he was considered a strong candidate. This declaration has not squelched the myth of two Nobel Prizes—a myth that is largely propagated on cancer websites (e.g., stopcancer.com). Warburg claimed that cancer was caused when cells switched from aerobic glycolysis to fermentation and this has made him a hero among the pseudoscience crowd. That's a tremendous disservice to one of the greatest biochemists who ever lived.



13 comments :

  1. Did you see the review by Sabatini in the last issue of Cell on the Warburg Effect?

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  2. review by Sabatini in the last issue of Cell on the Warburg Effect?

    This reminded me of the literature from "dark ages" that, in mice, repeated injections of glucose at high concentrations almost guarantee development of tumor at the site of injection.

    Don't have references, though.

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  3. Strongly disaagree with you view thaT glycolysis in cancer( the warburg effect" is pseudoscience. Early oncologists noted dramatic alterations in the way malignant cells organize catabolic and anabolic processes. For example, glucose uptake was found to be much higher in tumours than in most normal tissue, and the persistence of glycolysis even under normal aerobic conditions led Otto Warburg to propose that these metabolic changes were at the heart of cancer development — leading to, rather than resulting from, malignant transformation1. In the intervening years, as the importance of oncogenes, tumour suppressors, proliferation and apoptosis was unravelled, the role of metabolism in cancer development became somewhat sidelined, with the general feeling that the metabolic changes were simply a by-product of malignant transformation. However, an increasing understanding of the molecular mechanisms that control metabolism has led to a resurgence of interest in this topic, along with a growing realization that metabolic transformation can have a crucial role in the maintenance of the tumorigenic state.(See, Nature Reviews Cancer 9, 691-700 (October 2009) | doi:10.1038/nrc2715).
    Science has progressed beyond your limited view. Otton Warburg may be wrong proposing that aerobic glycolysis is the cause of cancer, the Warburg effect in malignant cancer cell is real and is currently a hot target for drug discovery.

    Yong Wang in Phoenix, AZ

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  4. Warburg Theory of Cancer and Ferromagnetic Theory of Cancer. Warburg's theory that cancer starts from irreversible injury to cellular respiration eventually fell out of favor amid research pointing to genomic mutations as the cause of uncontrolled cell growth. Ferromagnetic Theory-2006 of Cancer (Iron Conception) [clinical and molecular biological aspects]: 1) Any human cell is a society of dia-, para-, superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles. 2) Any onco-pathology and ALS work by intracellular superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles. Intracellular molecules FeO;Fe2O3;Fe3O4 'create' intracellular superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles. These nanoparticles are able chaotically distort DNA / shift chromosomes by local magnetic fields. 3) Non-complicated anti-iron methods of the Old Testament can beat Cancer and ALS (intracellular superpara-ferri-ferromagnetic infections). Cancer patients-2012 must receive anti-cancer anti-iron intratumoral injections [sulfur (2%) + olive oil (98%)] by ceramic needles. These intratumoral injections will initiate harmless infiltrations (deposits of cells that die; harmless necroses). Accurate anti-iron slow blood loss (even 75%) [hemoglobin control] and anti-iron goat’s milk diet will neutralize any micro-metastases. Vadim Shapoval

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  5. Otto Heinrich Warburg (1883 - 1970) invented Warburg Theory of Cancer. Vadim Ivanovich Shapoval (1969) invented Ferromagnetic Theory-2006 of Cancer / Carcinogenesis / Oncogenesis / Tumorigenesis (Iron Conception) [clinical and molecular biological aspects]. Any human cell is a society of dia-, para-, superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles. Any onco-pathology and ALS work by intracellular superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles. Non-complicated anti-iron methods of the Old Testament will beat Cancer. Ferromagnetic Theory of Cancer will eat Warburg Theory of Cancer. SANDWALK & Vadim Shapoval

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  6. Warburg, Virchow, Suss, Shapoval and Ferromagnetic Theory of Cancer. German scientist Otto H. Warburg argued, cancer should be interpreted as a type of mitochondrial disease. German pathologist Rudolph C. Virchow remarked that no man, even under torture, could define cancer. German cancer researcher Rudolf Suss (R. Suss; V. Kinzel; J. Scribner; Cancer: Experiments and Concepts / Krebs: Experimente und Denkmodelle; Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Springer, 1970) described oncology as impassable jungle of incomparable facts and ideas; as an ocean of information. Biblical scientist Vadim I. Shapoval argues, cancer and ALS should be interpreted as intracellular superpara-ferri-ferromagnetic infections. Any human cell should be interpreted as a society of dia-, para-, superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles. These nanoparticles have certain local magnetic contacts. Any human organism consists of normal cells (cells with non-numerous superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles) and tumor cells (cells with numerous superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles). Intracellular molecules FeO;Fe2O3;Fe3O4 are the main ‘creators’ of intracellular superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles that can chaotically distort DNA and shift chromosomes (by local magnetic fields). Cancer is not a genetic disease. Cancer is not disease caused by errors in DNA. Oncologists must beat cancer (an iron disease) by non-complicated anti-iron methods of The Old Testament. Anti-iron intratumoral injections [sulfur (2%) + olive oil (98%); 36.6C - 39.0C] (by ceramic needles) can suppress tumors and large metastases. Anti-iron accurate slow blood loss (even 75%) [hemoglobin control], anti-iron goat’s milk diet and anti-iron drinking water containing hydrogen sulfide [many metal ions react with hydrogen sulfide to give the corresponding metal sulfides] can neutralize any micro-metastases. Medical News Today explains molecular biological and clinical aspects of the Ferromagnetic Theory-2006 of Cancer / Carcinogenesis / Oncogenesis / Tumorigenesis (Iron Conception). Cancer researchers and oncologists should read Medical News Today. SANDWALK & Vadim Shapoval

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  7. Warburg, Cancer and ALS. Ferromagnetic Theory of ALS and Ferromagnetic Theory of Cancer (Iron Conception). All forms of ALS are caused by intraneuronal superpara-ferri-ferromagnetic infection. All forms of Cancer are caused by intracellular superpara-ferri-ferromagnetic infection. Any somatic cell (any neuron) should be interpreted as a society of dia-, para-, superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles. Like all cells, somatic cells contain DNA arranged in chromosomes. Neurons have the same organelles as other cells. Normal motor neurons are neurons with non-numerous superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles ('inclusions'). Degenerative motor neurons are neurons with numerous superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles. Intraneuronal molecules FeO;Fe2O3;Fe3O4 are the main ‘creators’ of intraneuronal superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles that can chaotically distort DNA and shift chromosomes (by local magnetic fields). ALS researchers can suppress ALS (an iron neurodegenerative illness that paralyzes ALS patients) by non-complicated anti-iron methods of The Old Testament. Anti-iron accurate slow blood loss (even 75%) [hemoglobin control], anti-iron goat’s milk diet and anti-iron drinking water containing hydrogen sulfide can gradually neutralize intraneuronal superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles. Ferromagnetic Theory of ALS will beat ALS. Ferromagnetic Theory of Cancer will beat Cancer. Warburg invented wrong theory. Modern Cancer- and ALS-researchers invent wrong theories. Ferromagnetic Theory of ALS and Ferromagnetic Theory of Cancer will eat wrong theories.

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  8. Otto Warburg invented ridiculous theory. Stephen Hawking invents ridiculous theories. Otto Warburg, Stephen Hawking, ALS, Cancer, Ferromagnetic Theory of ALS and Ferromagnetic Theory of Cancer. Stephen William Hawking is an internationally recognized physicist and mathematics Professor at Cambridge University in London, and an ALS patient for 40 years. In ALS, motor neurons waste away or die, and can no longer send messages to muscles. ALS and Cancer destroy ALS-patients and Cancer-patients because we live in dia-para-ferri-ferromagnetic world. Dia-, para-, ferri- and ferromagnetim are some forms (types) of magnetism. At the atomic level, magnetism is the result of motion by electrons, negatively charged subatomic particles, relative to one another. Superparamagnetism is a form of magnetism, which appears in small ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic nanoparticles. Human cells (motor neurons) consist of dia-, para-, superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles. Magnetism (dia-para-ferri-ferromagnetism) exists because the speed of light is limited. The speed of light is the speed of propagation of the electric and magnetic fields that make up the light. The parameter 'c' is ubiquitous in modern physics, appearing in many contexts that are unrelated to light. The speed 'c' with which electromagnetic waves propagate through the vacuum is related to the electric constant and the magnetic constant by the equation (electric constant)*(magnetic constant)=1/(c2). “If the speed of light is endless”, the magnetism dies, the electricity dies [the difference between magnetism and electricity is purely artificial], ALS dies, Cancer dies, Einstein's formula E=mc2 dies, any stars and black holes are 'nearby' objects. Normal cells (normal motor neurons) contain non-numerous superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles. Tumor cells (degenerative motor neurons) contain numerous superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles. Non-complicated anti-iron methods of The Old Testament can beat ALS and Cancer (intraneuronal / intracellular superpara-ferri-ferromagnetic infections). Professor Stephen Hawking can verify the Ferromagnetic Theory of ALS and the Ferromagnetic Theory of Cancer (Theories, taken from The Old Testament). Ferromagnetic Theory of Cancer eats Warburg Theory of Cancer. SANDWALK & Vadim Shapoval

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  9. Otto Warburg, Aneuploidy Theory of Сancer and Ferromagnetic Theory of Cancer. Otto Warburg ignored the Aneuploidy Theory of Сancer. German pathologist David Hansemann observed (in 1891) asymmetric mitoses in all of the epithelial cancers he examined. This led him to the hypothesis that, “The cell of the malignant tumor is a cell with a certain abnormal chromatin content.”. German biologist Theodor Boveri formulated (in 1914) the aneuploidy theory of cancer. But most researchers have dismissed phenomenon aneuploidy as a byproduct of cancer, not the cause. With the rise in the 1970s of the oncogene theory, the idea that aneuploidy was a cause of cancer was left in the dust. American molecular biologist Peter Duesberg revived the aneuploidy theory in 1997. The prevailing oncogene theory ascribes cancer to a handful of single-gene mutations that sends cells into uncontrolled growth. The aneuploidy theory, on the other hand, hypothesizes that cancer arises from a cell with an abnormal number of chromosomes. The duplicated chromosomes contain extra copies of hundreds or thousands of genes. Certain combinations of aneuploid chromosomes throw the cellular machinery into chaos and thus lead to cancerous growth. As a result of aneuploidy, the total DNA content of a cancer cell can rise to more than twice or fall to nearly half that of a normal diploid cell. In 2007, Scientific American published an article ‘Chromosomal Chaos and Cancer’ by Duesberg. Each cancer is unique. Even if cancers are from the same tissue, and are generated with the same carcinogen, they are never the same. There is always a cytogenetic and a biochemical individuality in every cancer. The Ferromagnetic Theory of Cancer (Theory from The Old Testament): any human cell should be interpreted as a society of dia-, para-, superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles. These nanoparticles have certain local magnetic contacts. Any human organism consists of normal cells (cells with non-numerous superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles) and tumor cells (cells with numerous superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles). Intracellular molecules FeO;Fe2O3;Fe3O4 are the main ‘creators’ of intracellular superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles that can chaotically distort DNA and shift chromosomes (by local magnetic fields). “Shift chromosomes” means “confuse, displace, interlace, invert, mix, muddle, permute, remove, transfer or/and transpose chromosomes / chromosomal fragments”. Cancer is a subtle iron disease (hemochromatosis is an obvious iron disease). Oncologists must beat tumors, large metastases and micro-metastases by non-complicated anti-iron methods of The Old Testament. SANDWALK & Vadim Shapoval

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  10. Warburg, Varmus, Duesberg, Shapoval and Ferromagnetic Theory of Cancer. Otto Warburg ignored the Aneuploidy Theory-1914 of Сancer and iron-cancer information; invented erroneous theory of cancer. Harold Varmus, M.D., co-recipient of a Nobel Prize for studies of the genetic basis of cancer, was nominated by President Obama as Director of the NCI on May 17, 2010. According to Varmus, the genetic material (DNA) of a cell can become damaged or changed, producing mutations that affect normal cell growth and division. Cells become cancer cells because of DNA damage. The mutation theory of cancer says that a limited number of genes causes cancer. Peter Duesberg is a Professor of Molecular and Cell Biology at the University of California, Berkeley. Duesberg’s arguments derive from his controversial proposal that the mutation theory of cancer - that tumors begin when a handful of mutated genes send a cell into uncontrolled growth - is wrong. Duesberg argues, instead, that carcinogenesis is initiated by a disruption of the chromosomes, which leads to duplicates, deletions, breaks and other chromosomal damage that alter the balance of tens of thousands of genes. The result is a cell with totally new traits - that is, a new phenotype. “I think Duesberg is correct by criticizing mutation theory, which sustains a billion-dollar drug industry focused on blocking these mutations,” said Mark Vincent, a medical oncologist. Vadim Shapoval is a Professor of The Old Testament. According to Shapoval, Varmus and Duesberg ignore Laws of Physics; produce erroneous cancer theories (mutation and chromosomal). Any human cell should be interpreted as a society of dia-, para-, superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles. These nanoparticles have certain local magnetic contacts. Superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles: 1) strongly attract superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles; 2) weakly attract paramagnetic nanoparticles; 3) weakly repel diamagnetic nanoparticles. Any human organism consists of normal cells (cells with non-numerous superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles) and tumor cells (cells with numerous superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles). Intracellular molecules FeO;Fe2O3;Fe3O4 are the main ‘creators’ of intracellular superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles that can chaotically distort DNA and shift chromosomes / chromosomal fragments (by local magnetic fields). The Ferromagnetic Theory of Cancer (Theory from The Old Testament): oncologists must beat cancer (a subtle iron disease) by non-complicated anti-iron methods of The Old Testament. Anti-iron intratumoral injections [sulfur (2%) + olive oil (98%); 36.6C - 39.0C] (by ceramic needles) can suppress any tumors and large metastases. Anti-iron accurate slow blood loss (even 75%) [hemoglobin control], anti-iron goat’s milk diet and anti-iron drinking water containing hydrogen sulfide can neutralize any micro-metastases. SANDWALK & Vadim Shapoval

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  11. Otto Heinrich Warburg and Vadim Ivanovich Shapoval. Difference between Tumor Cells and Normal Cells. Contact inhibition is the natural process of arresting cell growth when two or more cells come into contact with each other. Contact inhibition controls cell growth by allowing cells to replicate as old cells die but keeps unnecessary tissues from forming in their place. Normal cells have their own identity and obey the rule of contact inhibition. Normal cells adhere to each other and expire at the end of their life cycles. Tumor cells typically lose these properties and thus grow in an uncontrolled manner even when in contact with neighboring cells. Tumor cells do not follow the rules of contact inhibition, adherence and self-destruction (apoptosis, programmed cell death). Usually, tumor cells contain faulty DNA and chromosomes (some chromosomes may be duplicated or deleted). Tumor cells spread through the body via the lymphatic and circulatory systems. Clearly, tumor cells evade the immune system (tumor cells can trick the immune system). Unlike normal cells that are specialized, tumor cells are non-specialized and do not contribute to the functioning of a body part. Normal cells have specialized behaviors and serve a purpose. Tumor cells have lost their specialized function. The first tumor cells (in the human body) are not very malignant cells; subsequent (mature) tumor cells are extremely malignant cells. Ordinarily, old normal cells undergo apoptosis, a series of enzymatic reaction that lead to the death of the cell. Normal cells will self-destruct if genetic / chromosomal abnormalities are found. Tumor cells fail to undergo apoptosis. Normal cells divide about 50 times and then stop dividing and die. Tumor cells can enter the cell cycle repeatedly, and in this way, they are potentially immortal. According to the Ferromagnetic Theory of Cancer / Carcinogenesis / Oncogenesis / Tumorigenesis (Iron Conception), any tumor cells are cells with numerous intracellular superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles. Any normal cells are cells with non-numerous intracellular superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles. Any cancer and ALS work by these nanoparticles. Tumor cells (cells with these nanoparticles; excessively negatively charged cells) do not follow the rules of contact inhibition and adherence. Enzyme activity can be affected by these nanoparticles (immortality of tumor cells). The immune system does not identify these nanoparticles within cellular organelles (the immune system can’t distinguish between dia-, para-, superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic micro- and nano-objects). These nanoparticles can chaotically-anarchically distort DNA and shift chromosomes by local magnetic fields (mistakes in DNA; chromosomal faults; deformed mitoses; non-specialization and ugliness of tumor cells). Oncologists-clinicians must beat cancer (a subtle iron disease) by non-complicated anti-iron methods of The Old Testament. Ferromagnetic Cancer Theory will eat Warburg Cancer Theory. SANDWALK & Vadim Shapoval

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  12. Otto Warburg and Somatic Evolution. According to Dr. Otto Warburg, there are prime and secondary causes of diseases. For example, the prime cause of the plague is the plague bacillus, but secondary causes of the plague are filth, rats, and the fleas that transfer the plague bacillus from rats to man. Cancer, above all other diseases, has countless secondary causes. Almost anything can cause cancer. But, even for cancer, there is only one prime cause. The prime cause of cancer is the replacement of the respiration of oxygen (oxidation of sugar) in normal body cells by fermentation of sugar. All normal body cells are thus obligate aerobes, whereas all cancer cells are partial anaerobes. Cancer should be interpreted as a type of mitochondrial disease. The multistep process of carcinogenesis is often described as Somatic Evolution. The transition from normal tissue to invasive cancer is a multistep, multipath process in which increasingly malignant cellular populations emerge over time generally coincident with accumulating genomic mutations. According to The Old Testament and The Ferromagnetic Theory of Cancer (Iron Conception), any human cell should be interpreted: 1) as a society of atoms and molecules; 2) as a society of organelles; 3) as a society of dia-, para-, superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles that have certain local magnetic contacts. An atom is the smallest unit of matter. Atoms are the chemical units of cell structure. Atoms form molecules when two or more are bonded together. The human body contains many different organs. Cells also have a set of little organs, called organelles. Cells obey the same laws of chemistry and physics that determine the behavior of nonliving systems. Cancer works by intracellular superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles that can chaotically distort DNA and shift chromosomes by local magnetic fields; can affect intracellular molecules and organelles (mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.). Cancer is intracellular superpara-ferri-ferromagnetic 'infection'. Oncologists must beat cancer by non-complicated anti-iron methods of The Old Testament. SANDWALK & Vadim Shapoval

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  13. Otto Warburg, Spontaneous Remission of Cancer and Ferromagnetic Cancer Theory. Spontaneous remission (SR) of cancer is defined as the disappearance, complete or incomplete, of cancer without medical treatment, or with treatment that is considered inadequate. Otto Warburg ignored iron-cancer information on SR. Some researchers have hypothesized that SR may be caused by bacterial infection, blood transfusion, minor or major surgery. The case of a metastatic gastric cancer patient who experienced SR after a surgery-induced bacterial infection (Rosenberg, Fox, Churchill, 1972) has strongly contributed to the modern field of cancer immunotherapy, which injects small doses of bacteria into a tumor in order to stimulate the immune system to recognize and remove the tumor. Other SR-researchers: 1) SR occurs when certain elements that are necessary for a tumor’s survival are sharply reduced in the body; 2) hormonal changes may elicit SR. Leukemia can spontaneously receive regress before or after childbirth. SR-researchers have hypothesized that a severe reduction in thyroid hormone may lead to the SR of lung cancer, and that reduced thyroid levels may be applicable to all types of cancer in terms of eliciting SR. Iron deficiency anemia is associated with lower plasma thyroid hormone concentrations in humans. Everson and Cole in 1976 reviewed 176 well documented cases of SR of cancer and suggested that blood transfusion was the trigger for the remission. On the other hand, other clinicians have claimed that removing plasma from patients with metastatic cancer may induce remissions. Patients who have not received a blood transfusion before, during, or after their operation for colorectal cancer survive longer without tumor recurrence. According to the Ferromagnetic Cancer Theory (Iron Conception), any cancer is a subtle iron disease; intracellular superpara-ferri-ferromagnetic 'infection'; the first-born of death (The Old Testament; Job 18:13-15). Bacterial and viral infections, slow blood loss, minor or major surgery, pregnancy and childbirth, lower plasma thyroid hormone concentrations ARE 'spontaneous iron chelation events'. Oncologists must beat any tumors, metastases and micro-metastases by iron chelation therapy of The Old Testament. SANDWALK & Vadim Shapoval

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