Thursday, November 22, 2007

Theme: Nobel Laureates

 
NOBEL LAUREATES


November 13, 2006
Physiology or Medicine 1922
Otto Fritz Meyerhof
"for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle"

November 22, 2006
Physiology or Medicine 1964
Jacques Monod
"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"

November 29, 2006
Chemistry 1964
Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin
"for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances"

December 6, 2006
Chemistry 1930
Hans Fischer
"for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin"

December 13, 2006
Chemistry 1902
Hermann Emil Fischer
"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his work on sugar and purine syntheses"

December 20, 2006
Physiology or Medicine 1953
Hans Adolf Krebs
"for his discovery of the citric acid cycle"

January 3, 2007
Physiology or Medicine 1982
Sune K. Bergström, Bengt I. Samuelsson, and John R. Vane
"for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances"

January 10, 2007
Physiology or Medicine 2004
Richard Axel and Linda B. Buck
"for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"

Theme

A Sense of Smell
Nobel Laureates: Richard Axel, Linda Buck
January 17, 2007
Physiology or Medicine 1998
Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro, and Ferid Murad
"for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"

January 24, 2007
Chemistry 1978
Peter D. Mitchell
"for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory"


January 31, 2007
Chemistry 1988
Johann Deisenhofer, Robert Huber, and Hartmut Michel
"for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"

February 7, 2007
Physiology or Medicine 1978
Werner Arber, Daniel Nathans, and Hamilton O. Smith
"for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"

February 14, 2007
Chemistry 1972
Christian B. Anfinsen
"for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation"

February 21, 2007
Physiology or Medicine 1930
Karl Landsteiner
"for his discovery of human blood groups"

February 28, 2007
Chemistry 1937
Walter Norman Haworth
"for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C"

March 7, 2007
Physiology or Medicine 1948
Paul Hermann Müller
"for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods"

March 14, 2007
Chemistry 1980
Paul Berg
"for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA"

Theme

Transcription
Nobel Laureate: Roger Kornberg
March 21, 2007
Chemistry 2006
Roger D. Kornberg
"for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription"

March 28, 2007
Physiology or Medicine 1943
Henrik Carl Peter Dam
"for his discovery of vitamin K"
Edward Adelbert Doisy "for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K"

Theme

Blood Clotting
Nobel Laureates: Henrik Dam, Edward Doisy
April 4, 2007
Chemistry 1948
Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius
"for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins"





April 11, 2007
Physiology or Medicine 1953
Fritz Albert Lipmann
"for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism"

Theme

Pyruvate Dehydrogenase
Nobel Laureate: Aaron Klug
April 18, 2007
Chemistry 1982
Aaron Klug
"for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes"

April 25, 2007
Chemistry 1920
Walther Hermann Nernst
"in recognition of his work in thermochemistry"

May 2, 2007
Physiology or Medicine 1929
Christiaan Eijkman
"for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin"


May 9, 2007
Physiology or Medicine 1947
Carl Ferdinand Cori and Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz
"for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"

May 16, 2007
Chemistry 1907
Eduard Buchner
"for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cell-free fermentation"
[cell free synthesis of alcohol in yeast extracts: vitalism]

May 23, 2007
Physiology or Medicine 1994
Alfred G. Gilman and Martin Rodbell
"for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"


May 30, 2007
Physiology or Medicine 1968
Robert W. Holley, Har Gobind Khorana, and Marshall W. Nirenberg
"for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"

June 6, 2007
Chemistry 2004
Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko, and Irwin Rose
"for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation"

June 13, 2007
Physiology or Medicine 1945
Sir Alexander Fleming, Ernst Boris Chain, Sir Howard Walter Florey
"for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"

June 20, 2007
Physiology or Medicine 1993
Richard J. Roberts and Phillip A. Sharp
"for their discoveries of split genes"

June 27, 2007
Physiology or Medicine 1937
Albert von Szent-Györgyi Nagyrapolt
"for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid"

July 4, 2007
Chemistry 1928
Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus
"for the services rendered through his research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins"

July 11, 2007
Chemistry 1961
Melvin Calvin
"for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants"

THEME

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
Nobel Laureates: Crick, Watson, Wilkins
July 18, 2007
Physiology or Medicine 1962
Francis Harry Compton Crick, James Dewey Watson and Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins
"for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material"




July 25, 2007
Physiology or Medicine 1902
Ronald Ross
"for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it"

and

Physiology or Medicine 1907
Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran
"in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases"

August 1, 2007
Chemistry 1962
Max Ferdinand Perutz and John Cowdery Kendrew
"for their studies of the structures of globular proteins"

August 8, 2007
Chemistry 1903
Svante August Arrhenius
"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered to the advancement of chemistry by his electrolytic theory of dissociation"

August 22, 2007
Physiology or Medicine 1971
Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.
"for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones"

August 29, 2007
Chemistry 1937
Paul Karrer
"for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2"

September 5, 2007
Chemistry 1938
Richard Kuhn
"for his work on carotenoids and vitamins"

September 12, 2007
Physiology or Medicine 1969
Max Delbrück, Alfred D. Hershey, and Salvador E. Luria
"for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"

September 19, 2007
Physiology or Medicine 1933
Thomas Hunt Morgan
"for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity"

September 26, 2007
Physiology or Medicine 1999
Günter Blobel
"for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell"


October 3, 2007
Physiology or Medicine 1983
Barbara McClintock
"for her discovery of mobile genetic elements"

October 10,2007
Chemistry 1909
Wilhelm Ostwald
"in recognition of his work on catalysis and for his investigations into the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of reaction"

October 17, 2007
Chemistry 1926
The (Theodor) Svedberg
"for his work on disperse systems"

October 24, 2007
Chemistry 1946
James Batcheller Sumner
"for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized"
[crystallization of urease from jack bean]

October 31, 2007
Physiology or Medicine 1959
Arthur Kornberg
"for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid"

November 7, 2007
Physiology or Medicine 1909
Emil Theodor Kocher
"for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland"

November 14, 2007
Chemistry 1975
John Warcup Cornforth
"for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions"

November 21, 2007
Physiology or Medicine 1964
Konrad Bloch and Feodor Lynen
"for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism"

November 28, 2007
Physiology or Medicine 1992
Edmond Fischer and Edwin Krebs
"for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism"

December 5, 2007
Physiology or Medicine 1955
Hugo Theorell
"for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes"

December 12, 2007
Chemistry 1947
Sir Robert Robinson
"for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids"

December 19, 2007
Chemistry 1997
Paul Boyer and John Walker
"for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)"

January 9, 2008
Chemistry 1915
Richard Willstätter
"for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll"

January 16, 2008
Chemistry 1989
Sidney Altman
"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"

January 23, 2008
Chemistry 1989
Thomas R. Cech
"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"

January 30, 2008
Chemistry 1984
Bruce Merrifield
"for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix"

February 6, 2008
Physiology or Medicine 1965
"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"
François Jacob

February 13, 2008
Physiology or Medicine 1965
"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"
André Lwoff

March 5, 2008
Chemistry 1954
"for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances"
Linus Pauling

March 12, 2008
Physics 1915
"for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays"
Sir William Henry Bragg and Lawrence Bragg

March 19, 2008
Chemistry 1974
"for his fundamental achievements, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of the macromolecules"
Paul Flory

April 2, 2008
Chemistry 1918
"for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements"
Fritz Haber

April 9, 2008
Chemistry 2003
"for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels"
Roderick MacKinnon

April 23, 2008
Chemistry 1957
"for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes"
Lord Alexander Todd

April 30, 2008
Physiology or Medicine 1947
"for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar"
Bernardo Houssay

May 7, 2008
Physiology or Medicine 2000
"for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"
Arvid Carlsson and Paul Greengard

May 14, 2008
Physiology or Medicine 1958
"for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events"
George Beadle and Edward Tatum

May 21, 2008
Chemistry 1970
"for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates"
Luis Leloir

May 28, 2008
"for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form"
Wendell Stanley

June 4, 2008
Physiology or Medicine 1950
"for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"
Edward Kendall, Tadeus Reichstein and Philip Hench

June 11, 2008
Chemistry 1872
"for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule"
Stanford Moore and William Stein

June 18, 2008
Physiology or Medicine 1972
"for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies"
Gerald M. Edelman and Rodney R. Porter

June 25, 2008
Physiology or Medicine 1987
"for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity"
Susumu Tonegawa

July 2, 2008
Physiology or Medicine 1929
"for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins"
Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins

July 9, 2008
Chemistry 2003
"for the discovery of water channels"
Peter Agre

July 16, 2008
Physiology or Medicine 1974
"for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell"
George E. Palade

July 23, 2008
Chemistry 1943
"for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes"
George de Hevesy

July 30, 2008
Physiology or Medicine 1958
"for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria"
Joshua Lederberg

August 6, 2008
Physiology or Medicine 1973
"for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns"
Karl von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz, Nikolaas Tinbergen

August 13, 2008
Physiology or Medicine 1922
"for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle"
Archibald Hill

August 24, 2008
Physiology or Medicine 1977
"for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones"
Rosalyn Yalow

August 27, 2008
Chemistry 1929
"for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes"
Arthur Harden

September 3, 2008
Chemistry 1929
"for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes"
Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin

September 10, 2008
Chemistry 2002
"for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution"
Kurt Wüthrich

September 17, 2008
Physiology or Medicine 1931
"for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme"
Otto Heinrich Warburg

September 25, 2008
Physiology or Medicine 2002
"for their discoveries concerning 'genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"
Sydney Brenner, H. Robert Horvitz, and John E. Sulston

October 1, 2008
Physiology or Medicine 1959
"for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid"
Severo Ochoa

October 8, 2008
"for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection"
Stanley Prusiner

October 16, 2008
"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard and Eric F. Wieschaus

October 21, 2008
"for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation"
Hermann Joseph Muller

October 29, 2008
"in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances"
Albrecht Kossel

November 5, 2008
"for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form"
John Howard Northrop

November 13, 2008
Physiology or Medicine 1995
"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"
Edward Lewis

November 19, 2008
Literature 1930
"for his vigorous and graphic art of description and his ability to create, with wit and humour, new types of characters"
Sinclair Lewis

November 27, 2008
Physiology or Medicine 1988
"for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"
George Hitchings and Gertrude Elion

December 3, 2008
Physiology or Medicine 2000
"for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"
Eric Kandel


December 10, 2008
Chemistry 1980
"for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids"
Walter Gilbert


December 17, 2008
Chemistry 1980
"for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids"
Fred Sanger


December 17, 2008
Chemistry 1990
"for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis"
Elias Corey


January 14, 2009
Physiology and Medicince 1936
"for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses"
Sir Henry Hallett Dale and Otto Loewi


January 21, 2009
Physiology or Medicince 1936
"for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"
Ulf von Euler and Julius Axelrod


January 29, 2009
Chemistry 2008
"for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP"
Osamu Shimomura


February 5, 2009
Chemistry 2002
"for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules"
John B. Fenn and Koichi Tanaka


February 11, 2009
Physiology or Medicine 1974
"for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell"
Christian de Duve


February 20, 2009
Chemistry 1993
"for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry: for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies"
Michael Smith


February 26, 2009
Chemistry 1993
"for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry: for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies"
Kary Mullis


March 4, 2009
Physiology or Medicine 1923
"for the discovery of insulin"
Frederick Banting and J.J.R. Macleod


March 11, 2009
Chemistry 1958
"for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin"
Fred Sanger


March 19, 2009
Chemistry 1960
"for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science"
Willard Libby

March 25, 2009
Physiology or Medicine 1952
"for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis"
Selman Waksman

April 1, 2009
Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1905
"in recognition of his services in the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds"
Adolf von Baeyer

April 8, 2009
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007
"for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells"
Mario Capecchi, Martin Evans, and Oliver Smithies


April 16, 2009
Physiology or Medicine 1951
"for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it"
Max Theiler


April 23, 2009
Physiology or Medicine 2001
"for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle"
Sir Paul Nurse

May 1, 2009
Physiology or Medicine 1908
"in recognition of their work on immunity"
Paul Ehrlich







3 comments :

  1. I am looking forward to your rendition of Lorenz/Tinbergen/von Frisch prize.

    ReplyDelete
  2. You might have to wait a long time because I like to start off the week with Monday's Molecule and I can't think of an appropriate molecule for them. Can you? :-)

    ReplyDelete
  3. Hmmmm, that is hard. Royal jelly, some pheromones, or sex steroids, perhaps, as they affect behavior? Or just ditch the molecule (for that one week only) and replace it with something else, e.g., honey, or pine-cones ;-)

    ReplyDelete