"It is humbling for me and awe-inspiring to realize that we have caught the first glimpse of our own instruction book, previously known only to God."The sequence was a composite of a number of individuals.
The second sequence was from Celera Genomics, led by Craig Venter. It was mostly his genome, making him the second being to know his own instruction book ... right after God.
It took another seven years to finish and publish the complete sequence of all of Craig Venter's chromosomes. The paper was published in PLoS Biology (Levy et al., 2007) and highlighted in a Nature News article: All about Craig: the first 'full' genome sequence.
What's unique about this genome sequence—other than the fact that it's
There were 4.1 million differences between homologous chromosomes (22 autosomes). 78% of these events were single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The rest were indels (insertions and deletions) and these accounted for 0.9 million nucleotides. Thus, indels made up 74% of the total number of variant nucleotide sequence.
When the two copies of all annotated genes were compared, it turned out that 44% were heterozygous—the two copies were not identical.
Craig Venter's genome sequence differs from the composite human reference genome at 4,118,889 positions. Most of these were already known as variants in the human population but 31% were new variants (in 2007).
Venter has written about his genome sequence in A Life Decoded. He has variants in his APOE gene sequence that are associated with Alzheimer's and cardiovascular diseases. He has variants in his SORL1 that also make him at risk for Alzheimer's according to 2007 data. Just about everyone who gets their genomes sequenced will find variants that put them at greater risk for some genetic disease.
Levy, S., Sutton, G., Ng, P.C., Feuk, L., Halpern, A.L., Walenz, B.P., Axelrod, N., Huang, J., Kirkness, E.F., Denisov, G., Lin, Y., MacDonald, J.R., Pang, A.W.C., Shago, M., Stockwell, T.B., Tsiamouri, A., Bafna, V., Bansal, V., Kravitz, S.A., Busam, D.A., Beeson, K.Y., McIntosh, T.C., Remington, K.A., Abril, J.F., Gill, J., Borman, J., Rogers, Y.-H., Frazier, M.E., Scherer, S.W., Strausberg, R.L., and Venter, J.C. (2007) The diploid genome sequence of an individual human. PLoS Biol, 5(10), e254. [doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0050254]