He has a website called .DarwinsPredictions.
Charles Darwin presented his theory of evolution in 1859. In the century and half since then our knowledge of the life sciences has increased dramatically. We now know orders of magnitude more than Darwin and his peers knew about biology. And we can compare what science has discovered with what Darwin’s theory expects.I was reminded of these "predictions" a few days ago when Casey Luskin interviewed Cornelius Hunter in ID the Future: Casey Luskin and Cornelius Hunter Discuss Darwin's Predictions. I assume that most Sandwalk readers aren't familiar with all these false predictions of Darwinism so here they are with my own brief description.
It is not controversial that a great many predictions made by Darwin’s theory of evolution have been found to be false. There is less consensus, however, on how to interpret these falsifications. In logic, when a hypothesis predicts or entails an observation that is discovered to be false, then the hypothesis is concluded to be false. Not so in science.
- The DNA code is not unique Apparently Darwin predicted that there's nothing special about the genetic code but we now know that the genetic code has unique properties that could not possibly have evolved by accident.
- The cell’s fundamental molecules are universal Evolution is supposed to have predicted that every cell will have the same fundamental molecules but many species contain different DNA polymerases that are unrelated.
- Mutations are not adaptive Darwin's theory of evolution says that mutations have to be random but we now know that organisms increase their mutation rate in response to stress and mutations are directed.
- Competition is greatest between neighbors This one is very strange. According to Cornelius Hunter, Darwin predicted that there had to be competition between closely related species but recent results show that for green algae there's no correlation between competition and the evolutionary distance between species.
- Protein evolution Evolutionary theory is supposed to have predicted that proteins evolved very early in the history of life. However, recent calculations by creationists have revealed that the probability of evolving a functional protein is about one in 1070.
- Histone proteins cannot tolerate much change One of the predictions of Darwin's theory of evolution is that histone proteins must be highly conserved (who knew?) but some histones can tolerate lots of amino acid substitutions and still be functional.
- The molecular clock keeps evolutionary time One of the strangest of Hunter's claims is that Darwin's theory of evolution predicts that there will be a molecular clock. This is ridiculous since natural selection cannot generate a molecular clock and the discovery of an approximate molecular clock led to Neutral Theory and the importance of random genetic drift. Nevertheless, the "prediction" has been falsified, according to Hunter, because different species evolve at different rates.
- The pentadactyl pattern and common descent I was completely unaware of the fact that evolutionary theory predicted that all tetrapods should have five digits. This prediction has been falsified because some ancient fossils have different numbers of digits at the ends of their appendages.
- Serological tests reveal evolutionary relationships Darwin's theory of evolution predicts that serological tests (e.g. blood types) should support evolution but this prediction has been falsified because sometimes distantly related species have the same reaction to serological tests.
- Biology is not lineage specific I'm not sure I understand this prediction so you may have to read about it on the website. I think it has to do with the prediction that certain features should be shared by closely related species. Cornelius Hunter thinks this "prediction" has been falsified because, for example, transcription factor binding sites are not conserved in mice and humans.
- Similar species share similar genes It's a genuine expectation of evolutionary theory that similar species have similar genes and that's been conclusively demonstrated thousands of times. Hunter thinks this prediction has been falsified because some species contain a small number of unique genes (orphan genes).
- MicroRNA MicroRNAs should shows signs of having evolved and their presence in different species should reflect their evolutionary history. Darwin predicted this but both predictions turn out to be false.
- Genomic features are not sporadically distributed Horizontal gene transfer falsifies the idea that genes are inherited vertically.
- Gene and host phylogenies are congruent Darwin's theory of evolution predicted that gene trees should be congruent with trees based on morphological similarities. This is pretty much correct and the prediction has been confirmed. However, according to a leading creationist, this prediction has been falsified because we share more morphological features with orangutans even though the genes show chimpanzees as our closest ancestor.
- Gene phylogenies are congruent All gene trees are supposed to show the same phylogeny according to Darwin's theory of evolution. They don't, so the prediction has been falsified and god must have tweaked some of the trees so they differ.
- The species should form an evolutionary tree There's supposed to be a universal evolutionary tree but there isn't.
- Complex structures evolved from simpler structures This prediction has been falsified because, at the gene level, sea anemones are almost as complex as humans and trilobites had complex eyes.
- Structures do not evolve before there is a need for them Transcription factors involved in the development of eyes are present in species that don't have eyes and choanoflagellates have some of the same genes expressed in brains and nerve cells.
- Functionally unconstrained DNA is not conserved Some short DNA sequences are the same in distantly related species but those sequences can be deleted with no effect on the survival of the species. This falsifies evolution and proves that the intelligent designer has a sense of humor.
- Nature does not make leaps Many scientists have shown that species can evolve very rapidly and saltation has also been observed. (I'm wondering how the rapid changes in mussels, finches, and lizards are explained by intelligent design creationism.
- Altruism Altruism is a problem for Darwin's theory of evolution and kin selection doesn't explain it
- Cell death Some cells commit suicide proving that Darwin's theory of evolution is false.