Ginko biloba is the only living species in the division (phylum?) Ginkgophyta. It is a species of deciduous tree that's only distantly related to to the other trees that we see around us. Some taxonomists classify it as a gymnosperm but that's not a universally recognized classification. It's certainly not an angiosperm (flowering plant).
Ginkgo is often called a "living fossil" because it resembles plants that date from 270 million years ago. The term is misleading because, like other "living fossils" Ginko biloba has evolved considerably since the time of its similar-looking ancestors.
The trees are either male or female. I recently visited a beautiful example of a female tree growing in the yard of Frank Lloyd Wright's house in Oak Park in the suburb's of Chicago. The tree was full of "berries" (technically not fruit), which were about to drop. I'm told that the berries are edible but not very pleasant. They smell like human feces. (The pun is obvious ... don't bother. )
I wish I'd been there a bit later 'cause ever since I learned about Ginkgo I've wanted to taste the berries.
All of the trees in North America have been deliberately planted by gardeners. The one in the yard of the Frank Lloyd Wright house was already there when Wright bought the property in 1889. It's estimated to be about 160 years old. They don't grow very well in most parts of Canada.
I was under the impression that the tree is native to some parts of China but recent genotyping of the trees suggests that even those trees may have been deliberately planted there by ancient monks.